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Comparing Travel Authorization Systems: ESTA, Canada eTA, and ETIAS

Updated: Sep 13, 2023  | Tags: ESTA, ESTA Processing

When planning international travel, it's crucial to understand the entry requirements of your destination country. In an era where security is paramount, numerous countries have implemented electronic travel authorization systems to pre-screen visa-exempt travelers. Three prominent systems include the U.S. Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA), Canada's Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA), and the European Travel Information and Authorization System (ETIAS). This article provides an in-depth comparison of these systems.

Understanding ESTA, eTA, and ETIAS

U.S. Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA)

ESTA is a part of the U.S. Visa Waiver Program (VWP), which allows citizens from 41 participating countries to travel to the U.S. for tourism or business visits of up to 90 days without obtaining a visa. Applicants must submit their request online and, if approved, the authorization is valid for two years or until the passport expires.

Canada's Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA)

Canada's eTA system serves a similar purpose for air travelers from visa-exempt countries, except for U.S. citizens. Approved eTAs are valid for five years or until the passport expires, allowing short-term visits of up to six months for business, tourism, or transit.

European Travel Information and Authorization System (ETIAS)

The ETIAS, expected to launch by the end of 2024 will pre-screen visa-exempt travelers from over 60 countries, including U.S. and Canadian citizens, who plan to visit the Schengen Area for up to 90 days within a 180-day period. Once operational, the ETIAS authorization will be valid for three years or until the passport expires.

Purpose and Eligibility

The purpose of these systems is largely similar: to enhance border security by pre-screening travelers from visa-exempt countries. However, the countries implementing these systems and their list of eligible countries vary. ESTA applies to 41 countries, eTA covers most visa-exempt countries apart from the U.S., and ETIAS will apply to over 60 nations.

Application Process and Fee

The application process for ESTA, eTA, and ETIAS all take place online and require applicants to answer a series of questions regarding their personal information, travel plans, health, and security-related matters.

As of 2023, the government ESTA application fee is $21, the eTA fee is CAD $7, and the proposed ETIAS fee for individuals between the ages of 18 and 70 is to be €7. There's no fee for applicants under 18 or over 70 for ETIAS, while ESTA and eTA charges apply to all applicants.

Validity and Duration of Stay

All three systems have a multi-year validity: two years for ESTA, five years for eTA, and three years for ETIAS, or until the passport expires, whichever comes first.

The authorized duration of stay per visit also aligns across these systems, typically up to 90 days within a 180-day period for business, tourism, or transit purposes. However, Canada's eTA allows for stays of up to six months.


While ESTA, eTA, and ETIAS share the same goal of enhancing border security and simplifying the travel process for visa-exempt travelers, the specifics of each system, from eligibility to application processes, fees, and stay durations, reflect the unique immigration policies and security concerns of each implementing country or region.

When planning international travel, it's crucial to research your destination's entry requirements well in advance. Keep in mind that while travel authorizations like ESTA, eTA, or ETIAS allow for easier travel, they do not guarantee entry, as final admission decisions are made by border control officers upon arrival.