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ESTA for Travelers with Multiple Passports or Citizenships

Updated: Aug 24, 2023  | Tags: ESTA Requirements, USA Visa, Dual Citizen ESTA


Finding U.S. travel authorization requirements can be difficult for travelers holding a single passport. How about if you are a dual citizen or have multiple passports? This article is intended to provide information to individuals who hold multiple passports and want to learn about visa or ESTA requirements when traveling to the United States.

ESTA for Travelers with Multiple Passports or Citizenships
ESTA for Travelers with Multiple Passports or Citizenships

Key considerations for travelers with multiple passports

Entering and exiting the U.S. using the same passport

Use the same passport to enter and exit the U.S. that you used for your ESTA application. Using different passports will likely cause issues upon entering or leaving the country.

Checking your ESTA validity

Check your ESTA status regularly before departure. The ESTA is typically valid for two years or until your passport expires, whichever comes first. If you have a new passport, you will need a new ESTA.

Travel to Other Countries and State Sponsors of Terrorism

Traveling to some countries may cause implications for entering the U.S. For example, visiting Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, Syria or Yemen (where the U.S. deems State Sponsors of Terrorism) on or after March 1, 2011 may negatively impact the the decision on an ESTA application.

Political or Diplomatic Factors

Consider any diplomatic tensions or travel restrictions between the U.S. and any of the countries of which you are a citizen. This could potentially affect your entry, although it's generally unlikely under the VWP.

Legal Implications

Having dual citizenship may have legal implications, such as tax obligations or military service in one of the countries. Make sure you're aware of these factors.

Up-to-Date Documents

Ensure that the passport you intend to use is up-to-date and meets the U.S.'s entry requirements (e.g., it should be an electronic passport with a digital chip containing biometric information).

Name Differences

If your name varies between your different passports, this could cause confusion or delays at immigration. It's advisable to carry documentation explaining the difference, though you should apply for the ESTA using the name on the passport you'll use to enter the U.S.

CBP Inspection

Remember, U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers at the port of entry make the final determination on your eligibility to enter the U.S. Always carry necessary documentation to substantiate your travel plans and ties to your home country.

FAQ for ESTA travelers with mutiple citizenships

What’s the difference between a visa or a visa waiver?

An ESTA (Electronic System for Travel Authorization), is a visa waiver which enables passport holders of visa waiver countries to enter the United States for visits of up to 90 days. The ESTA can be applied for entirely online. Completing an application takes approximately 10 minutes and approvals are granted within 72 hours. Thus, an ESTA is a simple and convenient option for travelers wishing to visit the United States for tourism, business, medical or transit purposes.

If you are not eligible for ESTA based on the ESTA requirements, or have been denied an ESTA, a U.S. visa would be your next option. A U.S. visa requires completion of a DS-160 form, as well as attendance at a U.S. consulate or embassy for an interview regarding your previous travel history and travel purpose in the United States. Furthermore, visa applications require additional processing time to physically issue the visa in a passport and post it back to the applicant. The entire visa application process can take anywhere from a few weeks to several months.

Regardless of if you choose to apply for an ESTA or a visa, the passport you choose to travel with to the United States must have an approved ESTA or U.S. visa issued before your departure to the United States.

I hold citizenships of more than one country which is eligible for ESTA, which one do I use on the form?

You can use the passport of your choice for the ESTA application. You should continue to use the passport of this country for any future ESTA or visa applications and your U.S. travels, as it will reduce the likelihood of any processing delays or issues that may arise if you alternate among different passports.

I hold multiple citizenships, but one of them has expired, what do I put on the form?

Enter the most recent passport information regardless of the expiry date for any additional passports you still hold.

I hold citizenship to a country yet I do not hold a passport, what do I put on the form?

If you hold citizenship for another country yet do not have a passport for that country, you will still need to disclose the other citizenship, yet on the application form you may leave the ‘Passport Number’ field blank, or fill it with a sequence of zeroes if prompted.

Do I need an ESTA if I’m a U.S. citizen and also hold a passport of a visa waiver country?

No, if you are a U.S. citizen or passport holder, you should not be applying for an ESTA. You should use your U.S. passport to enter the United States.

What passports are exempt from needing a U.S. visa or visa waiver?

U.S. citizens entering the country with their American passports do not need a visa or visa waiver for any travel purpose. Citizens of Bermuda, Canada, Marshall Islands, Micronesia and Palau that are traveling to the U.S. with their respective passports will typically not need a visa or visa waiver to travel to the U.S. for most tourism, business or transit purposes. However, visitors holding these passports may still be denied entry to the United States under U.S. immigration laws.


Holding multiple citizenships or passports can be confusing when it comes to applying for visas or visa waivers. To summarize, if you hold a passport from at least one visa waiver country, and a non-visa waiver country, you will be eligible to apply for ESTA. If you are a U.S. citizen and hold a passport from a visa waiver country, you do not need an ESTA and should travel to the United States using your U.S. passport. If you are denied an ESTA or are not eligible, you can still apply for a B2 tourist or B1 business visa.

If you hold a passport from a visa waiver eligible country and wish to obtain an ESTA for tourist, business, medical or transit purposes, get started on your application, otherwise, visit the FAQ to learn more about the ESTA